.comment File: WWW .comment .comment Purpose: Client/Server, the Internet, and WWW Paper .comment .comment To print this document, do the following: .comment .comment :run printdoc.pub.robelle;info="QXPORT" .comment .com {ifout starts here} .comment Choose the output device parameters for this document .if outfinal . if outrecord . out(las 30 c1 r+ s7).com Robelle bound version, attached . else . out(las 30 c1 r- s7).com Robelle bound version . endif .elseif outhelpcomp . out(lpt q+ w80).com helpcomp;parm=1 .elseif outa4 . if outlpt . if outrecord . out(lpt s7 r+).com A4 paper, $Stdlist/LP/disc, attached . else . out(lpt s7 r-).com A4 paper, $Stdlist/LP/disc . endif . elseif outlaser . if outrecord . if outdouble . out(las 30 s8 r+ d+).com A4 paper, LaserJet, attached, duplex . else . out(las 30 s8 r+).com A4 paper, LaserJet, attached . endif . else . if outdouble . out(las 30 s8 r- d+).com A4 paper, LaserJet, duplex . else . out(las 30 s8 r-).com A4 paper, LaserJet . endif . endif . else.com No other outxxx jcws specified . out(lpt s7 r-).com generic: A4 paper, $Stdlist/LP/disc . endif .elseif outtext or outhtml . if outrecord . out(lpt s2 u- r+) . else . out(lpt s2 u-) . endif .else . if outlpt . if outrecord . out(lpt s3 r+).com Letter, $Stdlist/LP/disc, attached . else . out(lpt s3 r-).com Letter, $Stdlist/LP/disc . endif . elseif outlaser . if outrecord . if outdouble . out(las 30 s7 r+ d+).com Letter, LaserJet, attached, duplex . else . out(las 30 s7 r+).com Letter, LaserJet, attached . endif . else . if outdouble . out(las 30 s7 r- d+).com Letter, LaserJet, duplex . else . out(las 30 s7 r-).com Letter, LaserJet . endif . endif . else.com No outxxx jcws specified . out(lpt s3 r-).com Letter, generic: $Stdlist/LP/disc . endif .endif .comment .comment Choose the fonts for this document .if outfinal . include final.qlibdata.green .else . include f92286f.qlibdata.robelle .endif .comment .comment Choose the margins for this document .comment .if outhelpcomp . mar(r78) .elseif outa4 . mar(r62) .else . mar(r65) .endif .comment .comment Choose the forms for this document .comment .comment Form 1 is for the body of the manual .comment Form 2 is for unnumbered pages (end of section) .comment Form 3 is for the table of contents (roman numerals) .comment .if outtext or outhtml . form(k1 [L8000] ) . form(k2 [L8000] ) . form(k3 [L8000] ) .elseif outa4 . form(k1 [ T #23 S:40 // l58 / #33 "-" pn:1 "-" /] + [ S #23 T:40 // l58 / #33 "-" pn:1 "-" /]) . form(k2 [ // l58 / #33 pr:3 /]).com Roman numerals . form(k3 [ // l57 // ]) .else . form(k1 [ T #26 S:40 // l55 / #33 "-" pn:1 "-" /] + [ S #26 T:40 // l55 / #33 "-" pn:1 "-" /]) . form(k2 [ // l55 / #33 pr:3 /]).com Roman numerals . form(k3 [ // l54 // ]) .endif .comment .comment Option settings: .comment .comment For text output we want a ragged right edge. .comment .if outtext or outhtml . opt(j4 p+ b+ r-) .else . opt(j4 p+ b+).com Okay to insert four blanks between words .comment when justifying, two spaces after period, .comment suppress blank lines at top of page .endif .comment .comment Other formatting parameters: .par(f` p5 s1 u3) .com Automatic .skip 1.page 5.undent 3 .inp(u~ b@ h\ e& t# f|).com Underline,Blank,Hyphen,Escape,Tab,Font .page.count 1 .com Start page numbering over again. .if not outhtml .form 3 .jump 7 .opt(l- r- f-) `|3Client/Server, the Internet, and WWW| `|1By David J.@Greer| `|1Abstract| .opt Much of the Internet was made possible by client/server computing. The World Wide Web (WWW) is a means of providing hypertext access to the Internet using client/server protocols. The WWW allows you to point at links to text, pictures, music, or video located on servers anywhere in the world and then play the files on your local client PC, workstation or terminal (along with more links to related information). You never need to know where the information is located or learn any obscure commands to access it. This presentation will teach you how the WWW client/server architecture works, how to set up your own WWW server for MPE or HP-UX, and what the differences are among various WWW clients. You will also receive useful tips about how to find information on the Web. David Greer set up Robelle's WWW service and he participates in the development of Lynx, the character-mode WWW client. David is the President of Robelle Consulting Ltd.@and the person in charge of Research and Development for its Qedit and Suprtool products. .skip 7 .opt(l- r- f-) .font 1 Robelle Consulting Ltd. Unit 201, 15399-102A Ave. Surrey, B.C. Canada V3R 7K1 Toll-free: 1-800-561-8311 Phone: (604) 582-1700 Fax: (604) 582-1799 E-mail: david_greer&@robelle.com WWW: http://www.robelle.com .font 0 Copyright Robelle Consulting Ltd.@1995-1996 Permission is granted to reprint this document (but ~not~ for profit), provided that copyright notice is given. .opt.com Stop centering .endif.com if not outhtml .com The next FORM is for Contents/Preface: .form 1 .contents(i+3) .page.count 1 .jump 1 .if outhtml Client/Server, the Internet, and WWW

.else . opt(l- r- f-) .endif `|3Client/Server, the Internet, and WWW| .if outhtml

By David J.@Greer

Robelle Consulting Ltd.

Copyright Robelle Consulting Ltd.@1995-1996

.else |6http://www.robelle.com/www-paper/overview.html| `|1By David J.@Greer| |6http://www.robelle.com/&~david/welcome.html| .endif `|3Overview| .com.endif .ent `Overview .if outhtml

.else . opt .endif .tit World Wide Web .sub Overview The .if outhtml .endif World Wide Web (WWW) .if outhtml .else (|6http://www.w3.org|) .endif is a collection of servers distributed all over the world that respond to various clients. The WWW allows you to click on links to text, pictures, music, or video located on these servers and then to play the selected files on your local client PC, workstation, or terminal, along with more links to related information. You never need to know where the information is located or to learn any obscure commands to access it. .if outhtml

.endif .com - 1 The on-line version of this paper is available as a .if outhtml linked set of files .else linked set of files (|6http://www.robelle.com/www-paper/overview.html|) .endif or as a large .if outhtml single file. .else single file (|6http://www.robelle.com/www-paper/paper.html|). .endif Downloading this paper as a single file may take some time, but has the advantage of making it convenient to save or print the entire paper with your Web browser. .if outhtml

.endif .com - 2 To help you understand the World Wide Web, we have organized this paper into these major sections: .if outhtml Copyright 1995-1996 Robelle Consulting Ltd.

.endif .if outhtml

.else . mar(l+3) .endif .if outhtml
WWW Introduction

.else `WWW Introduction (|6http://www.robelle.com/www-paper/intro.html|) .endif To understand the WWW, it helps if you understand some basic Web concepts. Fundamental to this understanding is the concept of client/server computing on a global scale. .if outhtml

.endif .if outhtml

The Language of the Web

.else `The Language of the Web (|6http://www.robelle.com/www-paper/language.html|) .endif Whether you're reading WWW documents or creating your own, it helps if you understand the basic components of the WWW language. .if outhtml

.endif .if outhtml

WWW Clients

.else `WWW Clients (|6http://www.robelle.com/www-paper/clients.html|) .endif One powerful feature of the WWW is that the information you publish on your server can be read by many different clients. In this section, we provide a quick introduction to some of the popular WWW clients. .if outhtml

.endif .if outhtml

WWW Servers

.else `WWW Servers (|6http://www.robelle.com/www-paper/servers.html|) .endif If you want to make your own information available to WWW clients, you'll want to set up your own server. In this section, we discuss some common WWW server software and give our suggestions for how WWW server information should be designed. .if outhtml

.endif .if outhtml

Interesting Places to Visit

.else `Interesting Places to Visit (|6http://www.robelle.com/www-paper/links.html|) .endif The WWW is a big place. Here are a few pointers to some of the things that we have liked or found useful. .if outhtml

.endif .if outhtml

Summing it Up

.else `Summing it Up (|6http://www.robelle.com/www-paper/summary.html|) .endif These are our parting thoughts on client/server, WWW, and the Internet. .if outhtml

.endif .if outhtml


.else `Bibliography (|6http://www.robelle.com/www-paper/bib.html|) .endif A short list of books that we have found very useful for learning more about the WWW. .if outhtml

.endif .com End of point list .if outhtml

.else . mar .endif Jump on board for a ride on the Web. We hope that you'll find enough information here to join us with your own WWW information. .if outhtml

[ Next &| Robelle ] .endif .if not outhtml .if outhtml

.else . tit . sub . page . opt(l- r- f-) .endif `|3Introduction| .if outhtml

.endif .ent `Introduction .if outhtml

.else . opt .endif .tit World Wide Web .sub Introduction The WWW is a new way of viewing information -- and a rather different one. If, for example, you are viewing this paper as a WWW document, you will view it with a browser, in which case you can immediately access hypertext links. If you are reading this on paper, you will see the links indicated in parentheses and in a different font. Keep in mind that the WWW is constantly evolving. We have tried to pick stable links, but sites reorganize and sometimes they even move. By the time you read the printed version of this paper, some WWW links may have changed. .com New sub-section .if outhtml

The World Wide Web

.else `|3The World Wide Web| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent The World Wide Web .con(i+3) .endif The WWW project has the potential to do for the Internet what Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) have done for personal computers -- make the Net useful to end users. The Internet contains vast resources in many fields of study (not just in computer and technical information). In the past, finding and using these resources has been difficult. The Web provides consistency: Servers provide information in a consistent way and clients show information in a consistent way. To add a further thread of consistency, many users view the Web through graphical browsers which are like other windows (Microsoft Windows, Macintosh windows, or X-Windows) applications that they use. A principal feature of the Web is its links between one document and another. These links, described in the section on hypertext, allow you to move from one document to another. Hypertext links can point to any server connected to the Internet and to any type of file. These links are what transform the Internet into a web. .if outhtml

A History of the Web

.else `|1A History of the Web| .ent A History of the Web .endif The Web project was started by Tim Berners-Lee at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland. Tim wanted to find a way for scientists doing projects at CERN to collaborate with each other on-line. He thought of hypertext as one possible method for this collaboration. Tim started the WWW project at CERN in March 1989. In January 1992, the first versions of WWW software, known as Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), appeared on the Internet. By October 1993, 500 known HTTP servers were active. When Robelle joined the Internet in June 1994, we were about the 80,000th registered HTTP server. By the end of 1994, it was estimated that there were over 500,000 HTTP servers. Attempts to keep track of the number of HTTP servers on the Internet have not been successful. Programs that try to automatically count HTTP servers never stop -- new servers are being added constantly. .if not outhtml.com End of section . contents .endif .com New sub-section .if outhtml

On-Line versus Batch

.else `|3On-Line versus Batch| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent On-Line versus Batch .endif This paper is available on the World Wide Web (on-line) or as a paper document (batch). If you are reading this via .if outhtml .endif Robelle's WWW Service, .if outhtml .else (|6http://www.robelle.com|) .endif you probably already know how to access the on-line version. Much of the value of the Web lies in its links between one document and another. When you view this paper with a WWW browser, the links are hidden from you. When you read the text or paper copy of this paper, you see the links in parentheses. Because links tend to be long, they do not format well in the text and paper versions. Since more than half the effort of writing this paper went into finding and testing the links, we have left them in the text and printed versions, despite their distracting appearance. We will describe what the links mean a little later. .com New sub-section .if outhtml

What is Hypertext?

.else `|3What is Hypertext?| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent What is Hypertext? .endif Hypertext provides the links between different documents and different document types. If you have used Microsoft Windows WinHelp system or the .if outhtml .endif Macintosh .if outhtml .else (|6http://emu.mit.edu/mac_resource.html|) .endif hypercard application, you likely know how to use hypertext. In a hypertext document, links from one place in the document to another are included with the text. By selecting a link, you are able to jump immediately to another part of the document or even to a different document. In the WWW, links can go not only from one document to another, but from one computer to another. .com New sub-section .if outhtml

Client/Server Computing

.else `|3Client/Server Computing| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent Client/Server Computing .endif The last few years have seen an explosion of information about client/server computing. For many people, the definition of client/server is still unclear. We describe it as a method of distributing applications over one or more computers. A client is one process that requests services of another process. These processes can be on different computers or on the same computer. The processes communicate via a networking protocol. .if outhtml

.endif People often think of client/server computing in terms of local area networks, PCs with graphical user interface capabilities, and servers with information that is needed by the PC clients. You do not have to implement client/server computing this way. It is possible for the same computer to be both the client and the server. The key point is that there is a communications protocol that allows two processes (often on different computers) to request and to respond to demands for services. .com New sub-section .if outhtml

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol

.else `|3The Hypertext Transfer Protocol| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent The Hypertext Transfer Protocol .endif When you use a WWW client, it communicates with a WWW server using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol .if outhtml (HTTP). .else (HTTP) (|6http://www.w3.org/pub/WWW/Protocols/|). .endif When you select a WWW link, the following things happen: .if outhtml.com Start unordered list

    .else . mar(l+3) .endif .if outhtml.com List item
  1. The .else `1.#+1The .endif client looks up the hostname and makes a connection with the WWW server. .if outhtml.com List item
  2. The .else `2.#+1The .endif HTTP software on the server responds to the client's request. .bre .if outhtml.com List item
  3. The .else `3.#+1The .endif client and the server close the connection. .if outhtml.com End of unordered list
.else . mar .endif Compare this with traditional terminal/host computing. Users usually logon (connect) to the server and remain connected until they logoff (disconnect). An HTTP connection, on the other hand, is made only for as long as it takes for the server to respond to a request. Once the request is completed, the client and the server are no longer in communication. .if outhtml

.endif WWW clients use the same technique for other protocols. For example, if you request a directory at an .if outhtml anonymous FTP site, .else anonymous FTP site (e.g., |6ftp://ftp.robelle.com|), .endif the WWW client makes an FTP connection, logs on as an anonymous user, switches to the directory, requests the directory contents, and then logs off the FTP server. If you then select a file, the WWW client once again makes an FTP connection, logs on again, changes directories, downloads the file, and then logs off. If you use an FTP client to do the same thing, you would normally log on to the FTP server, change directories several times, and download one or more files. Only when you were finished would you log off. .com New sub-section .if outhtml

The Internet

.else `|3The Internet| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent The Internet .con(i+3) .endif The Internet is the world's largest interconnected computer network. Computers on the Internet communicate using the Internet Protocol (IP) and the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). You identify individual computers by their IP-address. This address is a 32-bit number that is usually represented by four octets (e.g., Fortunately, you can usually refer to a computer by its name .if outhtml (e.g., www.robelle.com). .else (e.g., www.robelle.com (|6http://www.robelle.com|)). .endif .if outhtml

.endif If you can send network packets to one computer on the Internet, you can send network packets to any computer on the Internet. This feature is what makes the Internet so powerful; it is also what concerns system managers. If you can send packets to the Internet, it follows that anyone can send packets to your computer, even the PC on your desktop. .if outhtml

Accessing the Internet

.else `|1Accessing the Internet| .ent Accessing the Internet .endif If you are reading the text or paper version of this paper, you're probably wondering "How do I get started on the Internet?" It is much easier to connect an individual PC and a modem to the Internet than it is to connect a server like an HP 3000 or HP 9000. We suggest that you find a local Internet access provider to connect your PC to the Net. Most access providers include everything you need to log on and start exploring. In addition, several books on connecting to the Internet also provide all the software and the telephone numbers of Internet access providers you need to get started. Once you're connected to the Internet, you can begin investigating many of the sites described in this paper. You will also be able to access and download much of the software needed to create your own WWW application which, as we discuss further on, can be of help to you, even if you never plan to connect your servers to the Internet. .if not outhtml.com End of section . contents .endif .if outhtml

[ Previous &| Next &| Overview &| Robelle ] .endif .if outhtml

.else . tit . sub . page . opt(l- r- f-) .endif `|3The Language of the Web| .if outhtml

.endif .ent `The Language of the Web .if outhtml

.else . opt .endif .tit World Wide Web .sub The Language of the Web In order to use the WWW, you must know something about the language used to communicate in the Web. There are three main components to this language: .if outhtml
.else . mar(l+3) .endif .if outhtml
Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)

.else `Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) .endif URLs provide the hypertext links between one document and another. These links can access a variety of protocols (e.g., ftp, gopher, or http) on different machines (or your own machine). .if outhtml

.endif .if outhtml

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)

.else `Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) .endif WWW documents contain a mixture of directives (markup), and text or graphics. The markup directives do such things as make a word appear in bold type. This is similar to the way UNIX users write nroff or troff documents, and MPE users write with Galley, TDP, or Prose. For PC users, this is completely different from WYSIWYG editing. However, a number of tools are now available on the market that hide the actual HTML. .if outhtml

.endif .if outhtml

Common Gateway Interfaces (CGI)

.else `Common Gateway Interfaces (CGI) .endif Servers use the CGI interface to execute local programs. CGIs provide a gateway between the HTTP server software and the host machine. .if outhtml

.endif .com End of point list .if outhtml

.else . mar .endif .com New sub-section .if outhtml

Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)

.else `|3Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) .con(i+3) .endif .if outhtml Uniform Resource Locators .else Uniform Resource Locators (|6http://www.w3.org/hypertext/WWW/Addressing/URL/Overview.html|) .endif (URLs) specify the access-method (how), the server name (where), and the location (what) needed for a WWW client to find and access a WWW object. The general form of a URL is .if outhtml
.font 5
.if outhtml
.else .font 0 .endif .if outhtml

Access Methods

.else `|1Access Methods| .ent Access Methods .endif The three most popular access methods are .if outhtml
.else . mar(l+3) .endif .if outhtml.com New point

.else `http: .endif This is the method provided by WWW servers. It includes hypertext linking, the hypertext markup language, and server scripts. .if outhtml

.endif .if outhtml.com New point


.else `gopher: .endif .if outhtml Gopher .else Gopher (|6gopher://gopher.micro.umn.edu|) .endif was developed at the University of Minnesota as a distributed campus information service. There are gopher servers everywhere -- many of them provide campus-wide information systems. Gopher information is organized into menus. Because hypertext provides the same services as gopher and more, many sites are moving from gopher-supplied information to WWW-supplied information. .if outhtml

.endif .if outhtml.com New point


.else `ftp: .endif The File Transfer Protocol is one of the oldest and most popular of all Internet services. You can access millions of files, documentation, source code, and other useful objects on anonymous FTP archives. You can use a WWW browser to view and to retrieve information from FTP archives. .if outhtml

.endif .com End of point list .if outhtml

.else . mar .endif .if outhtml

Server Name

.else `|1Server Name| .ent Server Name .endif The server name is an IP host name or an IP address. WWW servers often start with the name "www" as in .if outhtml www.robelle.com .else www.robelle.com (|6http://www.robelle.com|) .endif or .if outhtml www.mayfield.hp.com. .else www.mayfield.hp.com (|6http://www.mayfield.hp.com|). .endif The port number is usually not needed. If there are many servers on one machine (e.g., two different WWW servers on the same host), you would use a port number to select one of them. By default, WWW servers are on port 80. Other protocols have different ports (e.g., the default for FTP is 21). Most users never need to know about port numbers. .if outhtml

Welcome Page

.else `|1Welcome Page| .ent Welcome Page .endif Most WWW servers provide a welcome or home page. This is the document that you see if you specify a machine name, but not a document name (see all the examples above under "Server Name"). Good WWW welcome pages provide a short description of the information the WWW server provides, as well as links to all the other information available on the server. The welcome page must be explicitly configured for each WWW server. If you access a WWW server without giving a document name, and receive the error message "no document found", you should try one of the following common document names: welcome.html, index.html, or default.html. .if outhtml


.else `|1Location| .ent Location .endif The location can be a filename, a directory, a directory and filename, a server-script name, or something specific to the access-method. Filenames and directory structure often change, so don't be surprised if a URL that worked a few months ago no longer works now. .if not outhtml.com End of section . contents .endif .com New sub-section .if outhtml

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)

.else `|3Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) .con(i+3) .endif When you write documents for WWW, you use the .if outhtml Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). .else Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). (|6http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/General/Internet/WWW/HTMLPrimerP1.html|}. .endif In a markup language, you mix your text with the marks that indicate how formatting is to take place. Most WWW browsers have an option to "View Source" that will show you the HTML for the current document that you are viewing. .if outhtml

.endif Each WWW browser renders HTML in its own way. Character-mode browsers use terminal highlights (e.g., inverse video, dim, or underline) to show links, bold, italics, and so on. Graphical browsers use different typefaces, colors, and bold and italic formats to display different HTML marks. Writers have to remember that each browser in effect has its own HTML style sheet. For example, Lynx and Mosaic do not insert a blank line before unnumbered user lists, but Netscape does. .if outhtml

.endif .com - 1 If you want to see how your browser handles standard and non-standard HTML, try the .if outhtml WWW Test Pattern. .else WWW Test Pattern (|6http://www.uark.edu/&~wrg/|). .endif The test pattern will show differences between your browser, standard HTML, and other broswers. .com - 2 .if outhtml

Creating HTML

.else `|1Creating HTML| .ent Creating HTML .endif Creating HTML is awkward, but not that difficult. The most common method of creating HTML is to write the raw markup language using a standard text editor. If you are creating HTML yourself, we have found the chapter .if outhtml Authoring for the Web .else |2Authoring for the Web| .endif in the .if outhtml O'Reilly .else O'Reilly (|6http://www.ora.com|) .endif book "Managing Internet Information Services" to be an excellent resource. You might also find the .if outhtml HTML Quick Reference .else HTML Quick Reference (|6http://kuhttp.cc.ukans.edu/lynx_help/HTML_quick.html|) .endif to be useful. .if outhtml

.endif .com - 1 .if outhtml Bob Green, .else Bob Green, (|6http://www.robelle.com/&~bgreen|) .endif founder of Robelle, finds .if outhtml HTML Writer .else HTML Writer (|6http://lal.cs.byu.edu/people/nosack|) .endif to be useful for learning HTML. Instead of hiding the HTML tags, HTML Writer provides menus with all of the HTML elements and inserts these into a text window. To see how your documents look, you must use a separate Web browser. .if outhtml

.endif .com - 2 If you don't want to deal directly with HTML, you can get a WYSIWYG HTML editor. On the PC, we have tried HoTMetal and the Microsoft Word Internet add-on. HoTMetal is produced by .if outhtml SoftQuad .else SoftQuad (|6http://www.sq.com|). .endif There is a free version, which we found somewhat unreliable, and a professional version. HoTMetal probably works best if you are writing HTML documents from scratch (we tried to edit existing documents, some of which may have had invalid HTML). .if outhtml

.endif Microsoft has produced a new add-on to Microsoft Word that produces HTML. .if outhtml The Internet Assistant .else The Internet Assistant (|6http://www.microsoft.com/msoffice/freestuf/msword/download/ia/default|) .endif is available from Microsoft at no charge. You will need to know the basic concepts of Microsoft Word to take advantage of the Internet Assistant. Since we are not experienced Microsoft Word users, we found that the Internet Assistant didn't help us much. .if outhtml

.endif The HTML area of WWW is changing quickly. Users do not want to go back to ascii text editing after they've used WYSIWYG editors for the last several years. The Web itself carries a list of .if outhtml WYSIWYG HTML editors .else WYSIWYG HTML editors (|6http://www.yahoo.com/Computers/World_Wide_Web/HTML_Editors|) .endif for a variety of operating systems. .if not outhtml.com End of section . contents .endif .com New sub-section .if outhtml

Common Gateway Interface (CGI)

.else `|3Common Gateway Interface (CGI)| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent Common Gateway Interface (CGI) .con(i+3) .endif The .if outhtml Common Gateway Interface (CGI) .else Common Gateway Interface (CGI) (|6http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/overview.html|) .endif provides a method for WWW servers to invoke other programs. You can write these programs with any tool or language. They usually return HTML as their output. The Robelle .if outhtml WWW server statistics .else WWW server statistics (|6http://www.robelle.com/server.html|) .endif are provided by a CGI script that runs the .if outhtml getstats program. .else getstats program (|6http://www.eit.com/software/getstats/getstats.html|). .endif .if outhtml


.else `|1Forms| .ent Forms .endif The WWW supports .if outhtml simple forms .else simple forms (|6http://www.robelle.com/forms/comments.html|) .endif with text boxes, radio buttons, and pull-down lists. Forms are processed by CGI scripts. .if not outhtml.com End of section . contents .endif .if outhtml

[ Previous &| Next &| Overview &| Robelle ] .endif .if outhtml

.else . tit . sub . page . opt(l- r- f-) .endif `|3WWW Clients| .if outhtml

.endif .ent `WWW Clients .if outhtml

.else . opt .endif .tit World Wide Web .sub WWW Clients You will likely first experience the World Wide Web through a WWW client. In WWW terms, these are called browsers. Browsers are available for almost all major computer platforms, however you also need the appropriate network infrastructure to make them work. .if outhtml.com Start of point list
.else . mar(l+3) .endif .if outhtml
Network Infrastructure

.else `Network Infrastructure .endif What browser you use depends largely on how you are connected to the Internet. If you are using a terminal emulator and a serial connection, you will most likely use a character-mode browser. If you can send network packets from your computer to the Internet, you will probably use a graphical-mode browser. .if outhtml

.endif .if outhtml

Character-Mode Browsers

.else `Character-Mode Browsers .endif A popular character-mode browser is .if outhtml Lynx. .else Lynx (|6http://www.cc.ukans.edu/about_lynx/about_lynx.html|). .endif You cannot use Lynx to display graphical images, but it does support forms, as well as all HTML 2.0. .if outhtml

.endif .if outhtml

Graphical Browsers

.else `Graphical Browsers .endif .com - 1 Three popular graphical browsers are .if outhtml .endif Mosaic .if outhtml , .else (|6http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu|), .endif .if outhtml Netscape .else Netscape (|6http://www.mcom.com|) .endif and .if outhtml Microsoft Internet Explorer. .else Microsoft Internet Explorer (|6http://www.microsoft.com/ie/msie.htm|). .endif .if outhtml

.endif Mosaic and Netscape are available for Microsoft Windows, X-Windows, and the Macintosh, while Microsoft's IE is only available for Microsoft Windows. Mosaic and Microsoft IE are free to anyone; Netscape is free to any not-for-profit institution. .com - 2 .if outhtml

.endif .com End of point list .if outhtml

.else . mar .endif .com New sub-section .if outhtml

Network Infrastructure

.else `|3Network Infrastructure| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent Network Infrastructure .con(i+3) .endif How you connect to the Internet affects how you view the WWW. If you connect via a modem, you won't be able to view large WWW pages, images, sounds, or video; if you have a T1 connection (1.544M bits/second), you will be able to enjoy these features. Some WWW pages assume that you have a fast connection to the Internet. .if outhtml

.endif .if outhtml

Local Area Networks

.else `|1Local Area Networks| .ent Local Area Networks .endif If your Local Area Network has a gateway to the Internet (there are several different methods to do this), you should be able to use a graphical browser on your own workstation to cruise the WWW. If you are using a PC with Microsoft Windows, you'll need to have a .if outhtml Winsock .else Winsock (|6http://www.microsoft.com/pages/developer/winsock/default.html|) .endif interface installed (in addition to the regular networking configuration). Macintosh users already have network support via MacTCP. UNIX workstation users should also have built-in support for networking. .if outhtml

Dial-in Access

.else `|1Dial-in Access| .ent Dial-in Access .endif There are two methods of dialing into a machine to get access to the Internet. If you dial in and log on as usual (on UNIX you see "login:" and shell prompt or on MPE you type "HELLO" and get a colon prompt), your computer is not directly connected to the Internet, so it cannot send network packets from your PC to the Internet. In this case, you will have to use Lynx to access the WWW. .if outhtml

.endif If you dial-in using SLIP (Serial Line IP) or PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol), your computer becomes part of the Internet, which means it can send network packets to and from the Internet. In this case, you can use graphical browsers like Mosaic or Netscape to access the WWW. .if outhtml The Internet Adapter .else The Internet Adapter (|6http://marketplace.com/tia/tiahome.html|) .endif is supposed to allow users with only shell account access to obtain a SLIP connection. .if outhtml Shiva .else Shiva (|6http://www.shiva.com|) .endif and .if outhtml Livingston .else Livingston (|6http://www.livingston.com|) .endif provide products that allow users to dial into hosts using SLIP or PPP. .if not outhtml . contents.com Reset indentation for Network Infrastructure .endif .com New sub-section .if outhtml

Character-Mode Browsers

.else `|3Character-Mode Browsers| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent Character-Mode Browsers .con(i+3) .endif While Lynx is not the only character-mode browser, it is one of the most powerful. .if outhtml Lynx .else Lynx (|6ftp://ftp2.cc.ukans.edu/pub/lynx|) .endif is available for many platforms. You can obtain a pre-compiled version of Lynx for MPE/iX from .if outhtml jazz.external.hp.com. .else (|6http://jazz.external.hp.com/src/www_src/index.html|). .endif Some users are disappointed that Lynx's display is limited to text. What Lynx does demonstrate is that a single server can provide information to both character-mode and graphical clients. Still, to gain a full understanding of how powerful the client/server concept can be, you should compare Lynx's capabilities to the capabilities of graphical browsers such as Mosaic or Netscape. .if outhtml

.endif .if not outhtml . contents.com Reset indentation for Character-Mode Browsers .endif .com New sub-section .if outhtml

Graphical Browsers

.else `|3Graphical Browsers| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent Graphical Browsers .con(i+3) .endif Mosaic is one of the tools that makes the WWW so popular. With Mosaic, you can view in-line graphical images surrounded by proportional font text in multiple colors. For an excellent introduction to Mosaic, see the O'Reilly book .if outhtml The Mosaic Handbook. .else The Mosaic Handbook (|6http://www.ora.com|). .endif Three versions of the book are available (Windows, Macintosh, and X-Windows). The PC version of Mosaic requires the Win32s subsystem which is described in the .if outhtml Mosaic readme file. .else Mosaic readme file (|6ftp://ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Web/Mosaic/Windows/README.TXT|). .endif .if outhtml

.endif While Mosaic is popular, the newer Netscape browser is even more appealing, especially when used with slower network connections. Earlier versions of Mosaic did not display anything until an entire URL (and its associated graphical images) had been downloaded. Netscape, by contrast, starts displaying as soon as a screenful of information is available. As you page down through a document, Netscape barely pauses as it continues to download the URL in the background. .if outhtml

.endif .com - 1 The newest graphical browser is the .if outhtml Microsoft Internet Explorer. .else Microsoft Internet Explorer (|6http://www.microsoft.com/ie/msie.htm|). .endif This browser is part of Microsoft's strategy to make the Internet an important part of all Microsoft products. Like Netscape, the Microsoft IE also does background network transfers. We perfer Netscape over Microsoft IE, due to Netscape's user interface and better reliability. .com - 2 .if outhtml

External Viewers

.else `|1External Viewers| .ent External Viewers .endif Neither Mosaic nor Netscape tries to handle all the data that can potentially be served up on the Web. They both understand HTML, in-line graphics, and URLs. Netscape can display external GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) files, but Mosaic cannot. To view images, listen to sound, watch movies, or view spread sheets, you must have .if outhtml external tools .else external tools (|6http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/SDG/Software/WinMosaic/viewers.htm|) .endif to support these data formats. For Microsoft Windows users, a popular graphical viewer is .if outhtml LView. .else LView (|6ftp://ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu/PC/Windows/Mosaic/viewers|). .endif The Mosaic Handbook provides a good introduction to the external tools that you need to support full multimedia applications. Most of these tools also work with Netscape. .if outhtml

.endif .if not outhtml . contents.com Reset indentation for Graphical Browsers .endif .if outhtml [ Previous &| Next &| Overview &| Robelle ] .endif .if outhtml

.else . tit . sub . page . opt(l- r- f-) .endif `|3WWW Servers| .if outhtml

.endif .ent `WWW Servers .if outhtml

.else . opt .endif .tit World Wide Web .sub WWW Servers WWW servers provide information to the Web. Server software is available for many computer platforms, but setting up a server isn't always easy. .if outhtml
.else . mar(l+3) .endif .if outhtml
Why Set Up a WWW Server?

.else `Why Set Up a WWW Server? .endif Even if you don't have an Internet connection, there are lots of uses for an internal WWW server. .if outhtml

.endif .if outhtml

WWW Server Design

.else `WWW Server Design .endif Setting up a server to provide information to the many different Internet clients requires extra thought, but the effort is worth it. .if outhtml

.endif .if outhtml

Setting Up Your WWW Server

.else `Setting Up Your WWW Server .endif Server software exits for UNIX, MPE, Windows NT, Microsoft Windows, and even MS-DOS. .if outhtml

.endif .if outhtml

Maintaining Your WWW Server

.else `Maintaining Your WWW Server .endif Like most applications, your WWW server will need a little help from time to time. .if outhtml

.endif .com End of point list .if outhtml

.else . mar .endif .com New sub-section .if outhtml

Why Set Up a WWW Server?

.else `|3Why Set Up a WWW Server?| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent Why Set Up a WWW Server? .con(i+3) .endif If you have a full-time Internet connection, you might want to set up a WWW server to provide information about your company, your division, your group, or yourself. Even if you are not connected to the Internet, you still might want to set up a server. .if outhtml

.endif Hypertext is a useful way to distribute information because it can contain mixed text and graphics (or more), as well as links to other documents. Using WWW servers, you can create sophisticated help systems without a lot of work. Once established, these systems then become available to all users on your internal network who have suitable client software (browsers). .if outhtml

.endif With CGI scripts and e-mail, you can automate forms which you now process by hand (e.g., expense reports, travel reports, or purchase requisitions). With some extra work, you could even have the forms processed directly into a database. You can also design scripts to look up information in your existing databases and display it for clients. .if outhtml

.endif If your users are pushing for Microsoft Windows interfaces to all of their database data, you can use your WWW server as an intermediate solution. This way users get an immediate graphical interface and managers can experience the difficulties of managing client/server configurations. .if outhtml

.endif .if not outhtml . contents.com Reset indentation for Why Setup a WWW Server? .endif .com New sub-section .if outhtml

WWW Server Design

.else `|3WWW Server Design| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent WWW Server Design .con(i+3) .endif When you set up a WWW server, keep in mind that many different clients will be accessing your server. If your server is available on the Internet, you should not assume that the clients will all have high-speed Internet connections and graphical browsers. .if outhtml

.endif Consider these things when designing your WWW server: .if outhtml.com Start unordered list

.else . mar .endif We also suggest that you look at the .if outhtml W3 Style Guide. .else W3 Style Guide (|6http://www.w3.org/hypertext/WWW/Provider/Style/Overview.html|). .endif .if not outhtml . contents.com Reset indentation for Why Setup a WWW Server? .endif .com New sub-section .if outhtml

Setting Up A WWW Server

.else `|3Setting Up A WWW Server| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent Setting Up A WWW Server .con(i+3) .endif First, you need to decide what computer will host your WWW information (or you could pick several hosts). If your WWW server will make information available to many machines, the host must be connected to your network or the Internet. .if outhtml

.endif While WWW server software is available for a variety of machines, each server software package runs only on certain operating systems. The server software you pick will have to be compatible with the host machine that provides the WWW service. .if outhtml

WWW Server Software

.else `|1WWW Server Software| .ent WWW Server Software .endif W3 maintain a good list of .if outhtml WWW server software. .else WWW Server software (|6http://www.w3.org/hypertext/WWW/Daemon/Overview.html|). .endif Two of the most popular UNIX WWW server software packages are .if outhtml NCSA HTTPD .else NCSA HTTPD (|6http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu|) .endif and .if outhtml CERN HTTPD. .else CERN HTTPD (|6http://www.w3.org/hypertext/WWW/Daemon/Status.html|). .endif A pre-compiled copy of the NCSA HTTPD software is available for .if outhtml MPE/iX. .else MPE/iX (|6http://jazz.external.hp.com/src/www_src/index.html|). .endif .if outhtml

.endif .com - 1 Windows NT is becoming more popular as a WWW server, largely due to its built-in networking support and its familiar Windows interface. Free .if outhtml Windows NT HTTP Server software .else Windows NT HTTP Server software (|6http://emwac.ed.ac.uk/html/internet_toolchest/https/contents.html|) .endif is available from the .if outhtml European Microsoft Windows NT Academic Center. .else European Microsoft Windows NT Academic Center (|6http://emwac.ed.ac.uk|). .endif The .if outhtml Robelle Windows NT WWW Server .else Robelle Windows NT WWW Server (|6http://wwwnt.robelle.com|) .endif uses the O'Reilly .if outhtml Website .else Website (|6http://website.ora.com|) .endif software. Website comes with comprehensive documentation -- something other server software is lacking. .if outhtml

.endif .com - 2 Configuration and management is different for each package. We found the .if outhtml O'Reilly Book .else O'Reilly Book (|6http://www.ora.com|) .endif Managing Internet Information Services to be a valuable resource in setting up our WWW servers. The book is an excellent introduction to HTML, with many good examples of configurations. Unfortunately, the book only covers the configuration of the NCSA HTTPD software. .if outhtml


.else `|1Security| .ent Security .endif The CERN and NCSA HTTPD packages allow the WWW administrator to configure security. By default, both packages allow anyone to connect to your WWW service. However, you can configure the servers to allow connections only from specific IP addresses (be sure to do this if your WWW service is for internal use only). You can also password protect individual files. The .if outhtml MPE WWW Server .else MPE WWW Server (|6http://jazz.external.hp.com/demo.html|) .endif includes a demonstration of the NCSA security features. .if outhtml

.endif By default, the CERN and NCSA server software allow individual directories of hypertext files. If someone specifies a URL with a directory starting with tilde (&~), the server software looks for a user directory of that name and then searches under the user name for the directory public_html. .if outhtml

.endif For example, .if outhtml http://www.robelle.com/&~david/welcome.html .else (|6http://www.robelle.com/&~david/welcome.html|) .endif looks for the file /users/david/public_html/welcome.html on the Robelle WWW server. This allows individuals to create and manage their own WWW files. As a system manager, you may wish to disable this feature. .if outhtml

Writing HTML

.else `|1Writing HTML| .ent Writing HTML .endif Once you have the WWW server software running, you need to create WWW information. WWW documents use the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). See the .if outhtml HTML description .else HTML description (|6http://www.robelle.com/www-paper/language.html|) .endif earlier in this paper for suggestions and tools for writing HTML. .if outhtml

.endif Be sure to test your files before adding them to your WWW server. We test with at least three different browsers (Lynx, Mosaic, and Netscape). We also use .if outhtml Weblint .else Weblint (|6http://www.khoros.unm.edu/staff/neilb/weblint.html|) .endif on all of our Web documents. Weblint checks for common errors in HTML. While Weblint isn't perfect, it does help produce HTML that is acceptable to the widest range of WWW browsers. .if outhtml

.endif Weblint is written in .if outhtml Perl. .else Perl (|6http://www.cis.ufl.edu/perl|). .endif To use Weblint, you must have a working copy of Perl. Perl is short for "Practical Extraction and Report Language". Perl is designed to be more powerful than the shell, but easier to use than C. .if outhtml

Host Name

.else `|1Host Name| .ent Host Name .endif If your WWW server is available on the Internet, it's a good idea to create an alias for the actual computer that hosts your WWW service. Most people chose "www" as the alias name. This will make it easier for you to change the host without affecting users of your WWW service. .if outhtml


.else `|1Robots| .ent Robots .endif WWW servers on the Internet are often visited by .if outhtml robots. .else robots (|6http://web.nexor.co.uk/mak/doc/robots/robots.html|). .endif Robots usually visit Web sites in order to create indexes of the information that you publish on your WWW server. Since robots can cause problems for a WWW server, it's a good idea to create a .if outhtml robots.txt .else robots.txt (|6http://web.nexor.co.uk/mak/doc/robots/norobots.html|) .endif file. This file tells well-behaving robots which parts of your WWW they should visit. You might want to exclude graphical images, CGI scripts, and forms from a robot search, but include all other information about your WWW server. .if outhtml

Internal WWW Servers

.else `|1Internal WWW Servers| .ent Internal WWW Servers .endif If your WWW server will only be available on a Local Area Network, you have more flexibility in your design. Since users will have reasonably fast access to the server, you can make your HTML pages larger. You can also distribute more binary objects, such as graphics, word-processing documents, and spread sheets. You do have to remember to configure each client browser with the information on how to handle each filename suffix (e.g., you might want to associate ".doc" with Microsoft Word). See the section on .if outhtml External Viewers .else External Viewers .endif in the Clients section of this paper for more information. .if not outhtml.com End of section . contents .endif .com New sub-section .if outhtml

Maintaining Your WWW Server

.else `|3Maintaining Your WWW Server| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent Maintaining Your WWW Server .con(i+3) .endif Once you have your WWW server working, you need to continue maintaining it. The Web is changing rapidly. You need to insure that you obtain newer versions of the HTTPD software from the original source. .if outhtml

.endif All WWW server software can produce log files. If you do enable log files (some software has them enabled by default and others not), they usually grow without bounds. At Robelle, we make a copy of the current log files once a day and then we empty them. We keep the daily copies for approximately 60 days. This lets us provide .if outhtml statistics .else statistics (|6http://www.robelle.com/server.html|) .endif about our WWW service through the .if outhtml getstats program. .else getstats program (|6http://www.eit.com/software/getstats/getstats.html|). .endif .if outhtml

.endif Because more and more users are joining the Internet, you will likely want to continue to improve and expand your WWW information. This is a challenge, since the conversion and authoring tools are not yet well developed. At Robelle, we have tried to automate some of the production of our WWW information. For example, when the most recent change notices for .if outhtml Qedit/MPE, .else Qedit/MPE (|6http://www.robelle.com/ftp/changes/qeditmpe.txt|), .endif .if outhtml Qedit/UX, .else Qedit/UX (|6http://www.robelle.com/ftp/changes/qeditux.txt|), .endif .if outhtml Suprtool/MPE .else Suprtool/MPE (|6http://www.robelle.com/ftp/changes/suprtool.txt|) .endif and .if outhtml Suprtool/UX .else Suprtool/UX (|6http://www.robelle.com/ftp/changes/suprux.txt|) .endif are released, they are automatically posted to the .if outhtml Robelle FTP Service .else Robelle FTP Service (|6ftp://ftp.robelle.com|) .endif .if not outhtml.com End of section . contents .endif .if outhtml

[ Previous &| Next &| Overview &| Robelle ] .endif .if outhtml

.else . tit . sub . page . opt(l- r- f-) .endif `|3Interesting Places to Visit| .if outhtml

.endif .ent `Interesting Places to Visit .if outhtml

.else . opt .endif .tit World Wide Web .sub Interesting Places to Visit The WWW is a huge place. The following are a few personal recommendations for sites that we have found interesting or useful. Your mileage may vary. .if outhtml
.else . mar(l+3) .endif .if outhtml
Virtual References

.else `Virtual References .endif The Web contains links to everywhere. We show you a few sites that have a lot of excellent reference materials. .if outhtml

.endif .if outhtml

Travel Resources

.else `Travel Resources .endif Finding good travel information is a challenge. Here are a few suggestions for WWW travel resources. .if outhtml

.endif .if outhtml

Searching WWW

.else `Searching WWW .endif So much information is available via the WWW that finding the answer to a specific question can be hard. Here are some WWW search engines that help you to search the Web. .if outhtml

.endif .com End of point list .if outhtml

.else . mar .endif .com New sub-section .if outhtml

Virtual References

.else `|3Virtual References| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent Virtual References .con(i+3) .endif .com - 1 .if outhtml Yahoo .else Yahoo (|6http://www.yahoo.com|) .endif contains links to many Internet resources organized into subject catagories. If you have ever had trouble finding someone's e-mail address, try the .if outhtml Four 11 Directory Services .else Four 11 Directory Services (|6http://www.four11.com|) .endif or .if outhtml WhoWhere? .else WhoWhere? (|6http://www.whowhere.com|) .endif instead. You can also add your own e-mail address and other information about yourself to the Four11 or WhoWhere? directories. .if outhtml

.endif .com - 2 .if not outhtml.com End of section . contents .endif .com New sub-section .if outhtml

Travel Resources

.else `|3Travel Resources| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent Travel Resources .con(i+3) .endif Curious about a city, a region, or a country? Planning for that big trip across Europe or Asia? You might first want to check out one of these travel resources. .if outhtml

.endif We have found the .if outhtml Rec.Travel Library .else Rec.Travel Library (|6http://www.solutions.mb.ca/rec-travel|) .endif to be useful. The travel library is based on discussions from the rec.travel newsgroup. .if outhtml

.endif .if outhtml O'Reilly and Associations .else O'Reilly and Associations (|6http://www.ora.com|) .endif publish technical books, especially about UNIX. O'Reilly was one of the first companies to publish an on-line magazine called .if outhtml The Global Network Navigator. .else The Global Network Navigator (|6http://gnn.com/GNNhome.html|). .endif Included in GNN, is the .if outhtml GNN Travel Center .else GNN Travel Center (|6http://gnn.com/meta/travel/index.html|) .endif with current travel information and links to many Internet travel resources. .if outhtml

.endif Internet travel resources tend to be organized into major areas (e.g., Canada and the US, Europe, Asia). You often have to be patient when accessing their indexes, since they cover all countries and cities in an area. Keep in mind that England, Scotland, and Wales are usually indexed under .if outhtml United Kingdom, .else |2United Kingdom|, .endif which is at the end of any listing for Europe. .if not outhtml.com End of section . contents .endif .com New sub-section .if outhtml

Searching WWW

.else `|3Searching WWW| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent Searching WWW .con(i+3) .endif Users have invented .if outhtml robots .else robots (|6http://web.nexor.co.uk/mak/doc/robots/robots.html|) .endif to search the Web for documents. Since searches take a long time, these robots usually index everything they find into a database. The server provides the tools to search these databases. For example, .if outhtml InfoSeek, .else InfoSeek (|6http://www2.infoseek.com/|), .endif .if outhtml Lycos, .else Lycos (|6http://lycos.cs.cmu.edu/|), .endif .if outhtml Alta Vista from Digital, .else Alta Vista from Digital (|6http://altavista.digital.com|), .endif .if outhtml WebCrawler Search Database, .else WebCrawler Search Database (|6http://webcrawler.com/|), .endif or .if outhtml Architext Excite .else Architext Excite (|6http://www.excite.com/query.html") .endif are all good. Because these databases are indexed from the entire WWW, you usually have to qualify your searches in order to find what you are looking for. For example, if you search for "travel" you will likely have too many choices, but if you search for "travel Alaska" the list may be just what you want. .com - 1 Each database is different, so be sure to try two or three before giving up on your search for information on the Web. .if outhtml MetaCrawler .else MetaCrawler (|6http://metacrawler.cs.washington.edu:8080/index.html|) .endif will search many of the popular search databases at once. .com - 2 .if not outhtml.com End of section . contents .endif .if outhtml

[ Previous &| Next &| Overview &| Robelle ] .endif .if outhtml

.else . tit . sub . page . opt(l- r- f-) .endif `|3Summary| .if outhtml

.endif .ent `Summary .if outhtml

.else . opt .endif .tit World Wide Web .sub Summary The World Wide Web demonstrates how powerful client/server computing can be. If you are thinking of implementing client/server computing in your organization, it wouldn't hurt to first take a look at the Web. .if outhtml

.endif A WWW server is an application. System managers must pay attention to the security and maintenance problems that go with any large application. .if outhtml

.endif Creating Web documents is time consuming. It took me at least twice as long as I expected to write this paper. I spent a lot of the time finding and checking the many WWW links. With our 9600-baud connection to the Internet, this was a slow process. Tools for creating HTML are still in their infancy. We expect a lot of new tools to appear in the next year to help create HTML. .if outhtml

.endif It's easy to waste time on the Web, but it is one of the largest and most up-to-date resources available anywhere in the world. Get an Internet connection, a WWW client program, and start surfing! .if outhtml

[ Previous &| Next &| Overview &| Robelle ] .endif .if outhtml

.else . tit . sub . page . opt(l- r- f-) .endif `|3Bibliography| .if outhtml

.endif .ent `Bibliography .if outhtml

.else . opt .endif .tit World Wide Web .sub Bibliography Here is a short list of books that we have found very useful in understanding the WWW and in creating our own WWW services. .com New sub-section .if outhtml

Managing Internet Information Services

.else `|3Managing Internet Information Services| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent Managing Internet Information Services .endif .if outhtml
.else . mar(l+5).opt(f-) .endif Managing Internet Information Services Cricket Liu, Jerry Peek, Russ Jones, Bryan Buus, and Adrian Nye O'Reilly and Associates, Inc. ISBN: 1-56592-051-1 .if outhtml
.else . mar.opt .endif If you are managing any Internet information services (e.g., ftp, gopher, or WWW), you should get this book. The book includes an excellent primer on writing HTML. There are lots of hints on how to setup your own WWW server and extensive documentation on the NCSA server software for UNIX. The book also includes examples of CGI scripts. .com New sub-section .if outhtml

The Mosaic Handbook

.else `|3The Mosaic Handbook| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent The Mosaic Handbook .endif .if outhtml
.else . mar(l+5).opt(f-) .endif The Mosaic Handbook Dale Dougherty and Richard Koman O'Reilly and Associates, Inc. ISBN: 1-56592-094-5 .if outhtml
.else . mar.opt .endif There are three versions of this book: MS Windows, Macintosh, and X-windows. The book includes a copy of Enhanced Mosaic. There is a good explanation of the WWW and how clients and servers work together. The chapter .if outhtml Using Mosaic for Multimedia .else |2Using Mosaic for Multimedia| .endif includes a description of MIME types, how to configure them, and some suggests for external viewers. This section of the book would apply to any graphical browser. .com New sub-section .if outhtml

Teach Yourself Web Publishing with HTML in a Week

.else `|3Teach Yourself Web Publishing with HTML in a Week| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent Teach Yourself Web Publishing .endif .if outhtml
.else . mar(l+5).opt(f-) .endif Teach Yourself Web Publishing with HTML in a Week Laura Lemay SAMS ISBN: 0-672-30667-0 .if outhtml
.else . mar.opt .endif This book really does do what the title says. Here is the description from the author's home page. .if outhtml

.endif This book describes how to write, design, and publish information on the World Wide Web. In addition to describing the the HTML language itself, it provides extensive information on using images, sounds, video, interactivity, gateway programs (CGI), forms, and imagemaps. Through the use of dozens of real-life examples, the book helps you not only learn the technical details of writing Web pages, but also teaches you how to communicate information effectively through the Web. .com New sub-section .if outhtml

The Whole Internet User's Guide and Catalog

.else `|3The Whole Internet User's Guide and Catalog| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent The Whole Internet .endif .if outhtml
.else . mar(l+5).opt(f-) .endif The Whole Internet User's Guide and Catalog Ed Krol O'Reilly and Associates, Inc. ISBN: 1-56592-063-5 .if outhtml
.else . mar.opt .endif One of the best introductions to the Internet. Ed Krol covers most major Internet services (e.g., ftp and WWW). He also includes references to many useful Internet resources. The appendix .if outhtml Getting Connected to the Internet .else |2Getting Connected to the Internet| .endif discusses the different grades of service and provides a list of suggested Internet connection providers. .com New sub-section .if outhtml

WWW Pointers

.else `|3WWW Pointers| .box(y+10 h0 t4 c+1).skip 1 .ent WWW Pointers .endif These are the WWW pointers for these books. .if outhtml.com Start unordered list

    .else . mar(l+3) .endif .if outhtml
  • O'Reilly and Associates, Inc. .else `#+1O'Reilly and Associates, Inc. (|6http://www.ora.com|). .endif .if outhtml
  • SAMS. .else `#+1SAMS (|6http://www.mcp.com/sams|). .endif .if outhtml
  • Laura Lemay. .else `#+1Laura Lemay (|6http://slack.lne.com/lemay/theBook/index.html|). .endif .if outhtml
  • The Whole Internet User's Guide and Catalog. .else `#+1The Whole Internet User's Guide and Catalog (|6http://gnn.com/gnn/wic/index.html|). .endif .if outhtml.com End of unordered list

.else . mar .endif .if outhtml [ Previous &| Overview &| Robelle ] .endif .endif .if outhtml .com {toc starts here} .elseif outtext . page .else . con . form 3 . tit . page . if outdouble or outfinal . align . endif . count 3 . com The next FORM is for Contents/Preface: . form 2 . jump 6 . if not outfinal . jump 5 . endif . opt(l- r- f-).font 3 Client/Server, the Internet, and WWW . skip 4 Contents . opt.font 0 . tit |1Contents| . con (p+ f. m10 c52 l0 r0) . tit . page . form 3 . if outdouble or outfinal . align . endif .endif { else of if outtext } .check(c1 f0 i1 j0 m1 o1 p1) .com {toc ends here}