The Internet is a voluntary association of networks. It doesn't belong to the US government or anyone. No one is in charge of the Internet as a whole. If you have a dispute with the organization that is currently providing your Internet service, you can always link to another provider or lease a phone line to another Internet link in a different neighborhood, city, state or country.
The standard communication protocol used to interconnect these many networks is called TCP/IP. TCP/IP ensures that packets of informaton get to their destination reliably and are reassembled in the correct order as messages. The route that one of your packets takes need not be the same as that of your next or previous packet to the same place. Routing depends on the instantaneous load of the moment. The standards that define the Internet are developed interactively by the Internet users through RFC documents, where RFC stands for Request For Comment
Internet applications typically use a client/server design
and exchange messages through a mechanism called sockets.
For a fuller introduction to Internet technology and
resources, read David Greer's paper
"Client-Server, The Internet
What is this "DNS"?
DNS stands for Domain Name System (sometimes Server
because it is implemented using Client-Server techniques).
DNS answers two questions about locations on the Internet:
daffy.robelle.com, what is the numeric IP address?
188.8.131.52, what is the text name associated with it?
The DNS server lives either on your local LAN, somewhere on your network, or out on the Internet. Think of it like a telephone book for the entire Net. DNS maintains tables that map host names to IP addresses. Originally, every machine on Internet had a hard-coded "hosts" file that listed all the other machines that it wanted to network with. The hosts files became impossible to maintain once the Internet grew beyond a few hundred files, so DNS was invented to solve the problem. However, many PC systems still maintain a "hosts.txt" file to give the IP address of local machines, with a pointer to the IP address of a machine that contains the closest DNS server (note: in order to avoid an endless loop, the DNS pointer must be a numeric IP address, not a symbolic name).
DNS servers are linked in a hierarchy. The one closest to you many
only know about names in your area of the Net. It you ask it to
sam.unicode.org, it will have to query the DNS
server for "organizations," which may query another server, and so on.
For fastest lookup time, it is best to have your own DNS server
running on your local network. On UNIX the software that implements
DNS servers is called named.
Windows NT and
can be DNS clients,
but do not appear to have DNS server capability as of 1995.
If you are configuring a DNS server, we recommend the book
DNS and Bind by Paul Albitz and Cricket Liu from
Electronic mail (e-mail for short) allows users to send messages
from desk-top to desk-top. If you have an Internet connection
or use one of the commercial on-line services such as
can send messages all over the world. The most common addressing
standard for e-mail is the Internet address: email@example.com
(for example, firstname.lastname@example.org). If you know the host name, the domain
is one of "com" (commercial), "org" (organization), "edu"
(education), or "net" (network service), optionally followed by
a two-letter country code.
If you know the host name, common guesses for the user
name are the person's first name, last name, or a
combination of both with an underscore. For example, "green",
"bob", "bob_green", "bgreen", "greenb", and so on. It is possible
to define aliases which will accept mail addresses to all of
these names and send them to a single user.
World Wide Web
The World Wide Web (WWW for short) is a means of providing
hypertext access to all of the resources of the Internet.
Hypertext is text that contains links to other
resources. An example that you have probably experienced is
a Windows help file.
Web documents are called Web Pages;
they aren't limited in size to a single
page, but the units of information that are retrieved on
the Web are still called pages. Web pages
are coded in HTML (HyperText Markup Language)
to specify headings, paragraph breaks, bold, italic, and
most importantly, links.
If you follow a link on an Web page , you may end up on a computer half-way around the world from where you started. In fact, you seldom know where the resources are physically located. WWW is an umbrella application that sites on top of the many other information and communication tools of the Internet, giving them a consistent, machine-independent and accessible interface. The "links" aren't limited to text either, they can point to pictures, sounds, music, applications, or video. In order to access the WWW, you need an Internet connection and a Web browser, a program that follows links to retrieve "pages" from servers and display them on your client screen.
WWW is the application that caused the Internet's popularity
to soar, especially once Mosaic was released as a free
MS Windows "point and
There are now Windows versions of every conceivable Internet
tool, including the Eudora e-mail reader,
WinVN news reader, and HTML editors.
All of these applications run on top of a standard layer of
socket interface called "winsock".
HyperText Markup Language (HTML)
is the standard for coding documents on the World Wide Web.
Instead of marking a heading as Centered, Helvetic 16-Point Bold
with a blank line above and below, you put visible "tags"
around your heading. The browser client program is responsible
for deciding how best to display the heading on your screen.
<h1>My Great American Novel</h1>
<h1> tag starts a level-one heading (the most
bold) and the
</h1> ends the heading. Most tags
come as pairs, the ending tag being the same as the beginning
one except for the addition of a slash character "/".
There are numerous tools to simplify the preparation of
Web pages. This document was edited using
HTML Writer and checked for errors with
A useful Web site is the
HTML Validation Service.
It will check your web pages for compliance with the HTML
standard and send you a report of any errors.
JAZZ: Putting MPE on the Internet
With the release of MPE/iX version 5.0,
HP's commercial operating system is now POSIX
What this means in practice is that it is much easier to
port UNIX applications to MPE. And since
most Internet tools originated on UNIX, it means you can port
Internet tools to MPE.
In the depths of HP's Cupertino Labs, two programmers took an unused HP 3000 system and set out to port UNIX and Internet tools to it. They named their machine JAZZ and vindicated all the work that went into including POSIX within MPE. The JAZZ system demonstrates that MPE can coexist in the open Internet world, even acting as a World Wide Web server. With the HP 3000 dropped by HP, Speedware/Activant is re-deploying Jazz. Information can be found here. It is possible to connect an HP 3000 to the Internet.